Category Archives: International Economics

UK trade: going steady since the 1960s

Tommaso Aquilante, Enrico Longoni, Patrick Schneider

Countries’ goods exports are normally defined in terms of what has been shipped when and where. Recent literature (e.g. Besedeš and Prusa, 2011 and Besedeš et al, 2016) shows that looking at how long trade relationships have been in place is important as well. Using highly granular data, we show that over 60% of the value of UK nominal goods exports is in very mature trading relationships, by which we mean exports of a particular product between a pair of countries in a given year. This is true even with substantial churn (new relationships starting and old ones ceasing) going on all the while, and for exports in real terms as well.

Highly detailed trade data are increasingly available and one of the best sources is the UN’s Comtrade database, which provides detail of nominal trade in goods between countries at the product level. The dataset shows the value of imports and exports flows along four dimensions: country, partner, product and year. In the case of the UK, we have data for a total of 3,454,756 product-level relationships, comprised of up to 1,200 products exported by the UK to 150 countries over the period 1962-2014.

This is enough detail to make a researcher giddy. The granularity of the product definitions means, for example, we can, if so inclined, compare UK exports to France of different types of iron or steel wire (Chart 1).

Chart 1: UK exports to France of different type of wire

But whether you’re interested in wires or not, the dataset and the detail therein are incredibly valuable. As Chart 2 shows, the UN Comtrade data are a pretty good match with the ONS aggregate. But because the UN Comtrade line is a sum over a bunch of products and trading partners, they allow us to look beneath the surface of aggregate statistics.

Chart 2: UK goods export value

The depth and the breadth of trade relationships

We like to think of exports using this disaggregated data in terms of relationships – exports of a particular product between a pair of countries in a given year. So the UK export of ‘Glass envelopes for electric lamps’ to Germany is one unique relationship, as is the export of ‘Distilled alcoholic beverages’ to Japan.

Aggregate UK exports are the sum of the value of all existing relationships over a given period. Thought of in this way, aggregate trade is the product of the depth and the breadth of relationships between trade partners, i.e. the product of two margins:

  1. the intensive margin is the average value for a relationship, and
  2. the extensive margin is the number of active (positive value) relationships

Any growth in the aggregate is necessarily driven by changes in these margins. The extensive margin is fairly stable over time. Chart 3 shows that the number of active UK export relationships has been between sixty and eighty-thousand since the 1960s, without much obvious growth. This implies that the substantial growth in aggregate trade has mainly driven by increases in the value of the average trade relationship (the intensive margin).

Chart 3: The extensive margin of UK exports over time

These trends mask a number of things – the total count of active relationships misses churn (the birth of new ones and the death of old ones) and, even within a relationship, we can’t observe the entry and exit of the actual firms doing the trade. Although we can’t observe firms in these data, we can investigate churn at the relationship level by grouping these relationships into birth cohorts – the year since which the relationship has had a positive value.

Long-lasting relationships are the bedrock of UK’s aggregate trade

Chart 4 breaks the extensive margin into contributions from each of these birth cohorts. Each line separates one cohort of surviving relationships in a given year from the next.  The size of the cohort diminishes over time as relationships die off, just as the number of people born in a given year decreases every year. Unlike us, however, trade relationships can re-incarnate; and when they do, they count as members of a new cohort.

From the chart, we can see that just over 25% of more than 60,000 relationships that were active in the early sixties are still in place in the recent data (the black area in the chart). In 2014, this cohort still accounted for 20% of extant relationships (over 16,000 of the total 80,000).

Chart 4: Contributions to the extensive margin by birth cohort

Using the same cohorts, we can track their influence on the aggregate level of goods exports over time (Chart 5). The result here is very striking: over 60% of 2014 exports were in product-country relationships that had been in place since the early sixties. This is despite the fact that these only account for 20% of total active relationships.

Chart 5: Contributions to total exports by birth cohort

We have seen that many trading relationships survive, unbroken, since the sixties and these survivors account for the bulk of total exports. These results are striking, but should we be surprised by them?

We can think of trade, and business in general, as a selection process. Some of the forces that can increase the likelihood of survival – e.g. comparative advantage or proximity of trading partner (Albornoz et al 2016; Besedeš et al, 2016) – will increase the value of the trade flow as well. Furthermore, the value of trade flows tend to increase over time, as existing companies deepen existing partnerships and expand their customer networks, and new companies enter to compete with them (Albornoz et al, 2012).

So just as ancient vampires tend to be the more powerful (e.g. here), older trading relationships tend to be the more valuable. But whether we should be surprised by just how much of UK goods trade is accounted for by these long-standing relationships is a question for further investigation.


Disaggregated trade data offer researchers a wealth of opportunities for analysing trade and its dynamics. The empirical trade literature is, accordingly, increasingly making use of this and other rich datasets. Our analysis demonstrates how even simple investigations of these data can lead to striking insights. We showed that aggregate trade appears to be dominated by a few highly valuable and long-lasting relationships.

Tommaso Aquilante, Enrico Longoni and Patrick Schneider work in the Bank’s Monetary Analysis Division.

If you want to get in touch, please email us at or leave a comment below.

Comments will only appear once approved by a moderator, and are only published where a full name is supplied.Bank Underground is a blog for Bank of England staff to share views that challenge – or support – prevailing policy orthodoxies. The views expressed here are those of the authors, and are not necessarily those of the Bank of England, or its policy committees.

Leave a comment

Filed under International Economics

The Spanish Connection – Consequences of a macroprudential regulation in Spain on Mexico

Jagdish Tripathy

Does macroprudential regulation spillover to foreign financial systems through inter-bank linkages? This question has received a lot of attention in recent years given the discord between the international nature of the global financial system and its regulation and supervision by national jurisdictions (e.g. this article). For example, subsidiaries of Spanish banks issue almost half of all credit issued by commercial banks in Mexico. These subsidiaries are also fully owned by their parent banks headquartered in Spain. Therefore, it is quite natural to ask whether macroprudential regulations in Spain can have unintended consequences on the Mexican financial system and the Mexican economy in general. While Mexican subsidiaries of Spanish banks are de-jure ring-fenced from regulations in Spain, does this hold de-facto?

Continue reading

Comments Off on The Spanish Connection – Consequences of a macroprudential regulation in Spain on Mexico

Filed under Banking, International Economics, Macroprudential Regulation

Population ageing and the macroeconomy

Noëmie Lisack, Rana Sajedi and Gregory Thwaites

An unprecedented ageing process is unfolding in industrialised economies. The share of the population over 65 has gone from 8% in 1950 to almost 20% in 2015, and is projected to keep rising. What are the macroeconomic implications of this change? What should we expect in the coming years? In a recent staff working paper, we link population ageing to several key economic trends over the last half century: the decline in real interest rates, the rise in house prices and household debt, and the pattern of foreign asset holdings among advanced economies. The effects of demographic change are not expected to reverse so long as longevity, and in particular the average time spent in retirement, remains high.

Continue reading


Filed under International Economics, Macroeconomics

Bitesize: Financial services exports and financial openness: two sides of the same coin

Carlos Eduardo van Hombeeck

The UK has a comparative advantage in financial services. But specialisation in this activity brings with it the challenge of the large gross capital flows that are linked to financial services exports.

Continue reading

1 Comment

Filed under Bitesize, Financial Stability, International Economics

Do rich countries lend to poor countries?

Almog Adir and Simon Whitaker

In the last few years there has been a small net overall flow of capital from advanced to emerging market economies (EMEs), in contrast to the ‘paradox’ prevailing for much of this century of capital flowing the ‘wrong’ way, uphill from poor to rich countries.  In this post we show the ‘paradox’ in the aggregate flows actually concealed private capital flowing the ‘right’ way for much of the time.  And even during recent turbulence, foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, likely to be particularly beneficial to growth, have persisted.  But EMEs could still benefit more from harnessing capital from advanced economies and Argentina has set a useful precedent as it prepares to take over the Presidency of the G20 in 2018.

Continue reading

1 Comment

Filed under Financial Markets, International Economics, Macroeconomics

Bitesize: Flourishing FinTech

Aidan Saggers and Chiranjit Chakraborty

Investment in the Financial Technology (FinTech) industry has increased rapidly post crisis and globalisation is apparent with many investors funding companies far from their own physical locations.  From Crunchbase data we gathered all the venture capital investments in FinTech start-up firms from 2010 to 2014 and created network diagrams for each year.
Continue reading


Filed under International Economics, Market Infrastructure, New Methodologies

Does domestic uncertainty really matter for the economy?

Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchi , Chris Redl,  Andrej Sokol and Gregory Thwaites

Volatile economic data or political events can lead to heightened uncertainty. This can then weigh on households’ and firms’ spending and investment decisions. We revisit the question of how uncertainty affects the UK economy, by constructing new measures of uncertainty and quantifying their effects on economic activity. We find that UK uncertainty depresses domestic activity only insofar as it is driven by developments overseas, and that other changes in uncertainty about the UK real economy have very little effect.

Continue reading


Filed under Financial Markets, International Economics, Macroeconomics, New Methodologies

A LOOPy model of inflation

Alex Tuckett

The Law of One Price (LOOP) is an old idea in economics. LOOP states that the same product should cost the same in different places, expressed in the same currency. The intuition is that arbitrage (buying a product where it is cheap and selling it where it is expensive) should bring prices back into line. Can LOOP help us understand UK inflation? Yes. I find EU prices have much higher explanatory power for UK prices than domestic cost pressures, and the effects of exchange rate changes last longer, but build more slowly than commonly assumed.

Continue reading

1 Comment

Filed under Currency, International Economics, Macroeconomics, Monetary Policy